当前位置: 首页 > >

市场营销Marketing-Ch 17-Value chain

发布时间:

Value Chain Management: Channels of Distribution, Logistics, and Wholesaling

What is a Distribution Channel?
? Series of firms or individuals that facilitates the movement of a product from the producer to the final customer – Direct – Indirect

? 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc

17-2

Functions of Distribution Channels
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Time, place, and ownership utilities Logistics functions Transportation and storage functions Efficiency creation Facilitating functions Repair and maintenance functions Risk-taking Communications and transaction functions
17-3

? 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc

Creating Efficiencies
? Breaking bulk - channel members purchase large quantities from manufacturers and sell smaller quantities to many different customers ? Creating assortments - channel members provide a variety of products on one location

? 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc

17-4

Figure 17.1: Reducing Transactions via Intermediaries

? 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc

17-5

The Internet
? Even small firms with limited resources can enjoy competitive advantages by making products available to customers around the globe at a very low cost ? Disintermediation - process by which traditional intermediaries are eliminated as companies question the value added by layers in the distribution channel
? 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc 17-6

Types of Wholesaling Intermediaries
? Wholesaling intermediaries are firms that handle the flow of products from the manufacturer to retailer or business user – Independent – Manufacturer-owned

? 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc

17-7

Independent Intermediaries
? Merchant wholesalers – Full-service – Limited-service – Cash-and-carry wholesalers – Truck jobbers – Drop shippers – Mail-order wholesalers – Rack jobbers
? 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc

? Merchandise Agents or Brokers – Manufacturers’ agents – Selling agents – Commission merchants – Merchandise brokers

17-8

Manufacturer-Owned Intermediaries
? Sales branches ? Sales offices ? Manufacturers’ showrooms

? 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc

17-9

Figure 17.2: Types of Distribution Channels

? 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc

17-10

Types of Distribution Channels
? Consumer channels
– Direct – Manufacturer-retailer-consumer – Manufacturer-wholesaler-retailer-consumer

? Business-to-business channels
– Direct – Manufacturer-industrial distributor-business customer
? 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc 17-11

Consumer Channels

? 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc

17-12

B2B Channels

? 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc

17-13

Dual Distribution Systems
? Multiple channel usage ? Example: – pharmaceutical industry sells to hospitals, clinics, and organizational customers directly and to consumers indirectly through drug retailers

? 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc

17-14

Figure 17.3: Steps in Distribution Planning

? 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc

17-15

Marketing Systems
? Conventional - multi-level distribution channel in which members work independently of one another ? Vertical - channel in which there is cooperation among channel members at two or more different levels of the channel ? Horizontal - two or more firms at the same channel level agree to work together
? 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc 17-16

Vertical Marketing Systems
? Administered - channel members remain independent but voluntarily work together ? Corporate - single firm owns manufacturing, wholesaling, and retailing operations ? Contractual - cooperation is enforced by contracts that spell out member rights and the terms of cooperation
? 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc 17-17

Contractual Vertical Marketing Systems
? Wholesaler-sponsored - wholesalers get retailers to work together under their leadership in a voluntary chain ? Retailer-cooperative - group of retailers with a wholesaling operation to help them compete more effectively with large chains ? Franchise organizations - cooperation is explicitly defined and strictly enforced by franchiser
? 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc 17-18

Distribution Intensity
Decision Factors: Company, Customers, Channels, Constraints, and Competition

Intensive, Exclusive, or Selective Distribution

? 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc

17-19

Developing Distribution Tactics
? Selecting channel partners ? Managing the channel of distribution – Channel leader is the dominant firm that controls the channel – Channel leaders have some form of power relative to other members
? economic power ? legitimate power ? reward or coercive power
? 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc 17-20

Logistics: Implementing the Value Chain
? Process of designing, managing, and improving the movement of products through the supply chain – purchasing – manufacturing – storage – transport
? 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc 17-21

Supply Chain Management
? The supply chain includes all the firms that engage in activities that are necessary to convert raw materials into a good or service and put it in the hands of the consumer or business customer ? Supply chain management is the management of flows among the firms in a supply chain to maximize total profitability

? 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc

17-22

Figure 17.4: Supply Chain

? 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc

17-23

Logistics and Customer Satisfaction
? Traditionally, logistics was thought of as physical distribution – order processing, warehousing, materials handling, transportation, and inventory control – objective to deliver product at lowest cost ? Now, customers’ goals become the logistics provider’s goals
? 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc 17-24

Logistics Functions
? ? ? ? ? Order processing Warehousing Materials handling Transportation Inventory Control

? 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc

17-25

Transportation Mode Considerations
? ? ? ? ? ? Dependability Cost Speed of Delivery Accessibility Capability Traceability

? 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc

17-26

Modes of Transportation
? ? ? ? ? ? Rail Water Truck Air Pipeline Internet

? 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc

17-27




友情链接: